The authors argue that Italian economic development has been characterized in the long run by poor formal institutions, which led to a suboptimal pattern of growth characterized by scarce investment in education, low salaries, imitative technologies, and exploitative management of firms by owners who were mainly stockholders rather than stakeholders. Our test shows that new centers of the system would have emerged financial, electricity, and phone companies , confirming the interconnected nature of the Italian capitalism. Harry +Potter Search results will contain 'Potter'. It confirms that this particular form of business organisation is neither limited to the less developed countries, nor is simply a second best functional substitute of the multi-divisional form diffused in the liberal market economies. One important issue that has recently captured the attention and the research efforts of both economists and economic historians has been the debate on varieties of capitalism in the modern world. In this process, public and private lighting was chronologically the first area of interest — parallel with railway development planning — where international finance played a role. Strategy, Structure, Ownership and Performance.
. These lists allow the identification of firms by industry and whether they were foreign-owned. Other procedures, such as deals with creditors or forms of receivership, able to give companies a further chance, were rarely used. The paper concludes in favour of loose, rather than tight systems perspectives in contemporary Europe and considers implications for comparative research and economic restructuring. L'articolo prende in considerazione principalmente due prospettive.
Based on solid quantitative evidence, this original work will prove to be a valuable resource for academics and students of strategy and organization, economic historians and applied economists. This paper studies gender differences in the determinants of self-employment in Portugal. New York: Cambridge University Press. By comparing the rise of small firms in France, Germany and Italy and their decline in Britain this book analyses how the structure of these countries' banking systems has affected small firms' growth. Up to the 1980s the growth of public enterprise was more pronounced, continuous and protracted than elsewhere in the Western countries.
An example of business history as it ought to be done. In 1983, the cohesion of the system had sharply diminished; state-owned enterprises had disappeared The state-owned enterprise has had a first-rank place in Italian economic growth in the last century, although its ability to overcome gaps in technology and institutions proved to be somewhat insufficient. Moreover, turbulence is not smooth, but rather occurs by impulses that affect specific industries, and it has increased over time. Some factors are instead typically exogenous, as it may be when external price shocks are taken into account and the oil shock or the deregulation wave is considered. Despite the considerable attention granted to the history of international business, we still have a limited knowledge of the historical impact of multinationals on host economies. Harry -Potter Search results will not contain 'Potter'.
This analysis is placed in the historical context of the political economy of these four countries, to show how banking and industrial structures developed over the century as a consequence of the state's need to mediate between different social and economic groups. The very rich variety of subjects discussed and the widespread use of qualitative information to corroborate the analyses, offer a unique opportunity to look at the evolution of the Italian economy from many different views, and, cross-checking and referencing the different essays, to draw stronger and broader conclusions out of the information contained in each of them. Broadly speaking, two distinct stages are clearly discernible. Unlike other countries, there is no evidence that women choose self-employment because of family reasons. La prima è rappresentata dall'analisi dell'efficienza degli strumenti legislativi nella gestione delle varie crisi.
The focus will be on the role played by institutions in forging an array of industrial policies in place over the last 150 years which determined the process of convergence and, more recently, of divergence in big business, and the outstanding, constant presence of a small business sector far beyond the average of the most advanced countries among which Italy is still considered to be. In absence of obstacles of legal or fiscal nature, this flexibility is probably the main reason for its resilience. In the period following the Second World War, the Italian government, unlike the governments of other defeated powers, not only resisted pressure to divest public properties progressively and to encourage a free market ideology, but also gradually enlarged its control over the economy — particularly over finance and banking, industrial production and transport — through what was to become in short an organised shareholding system. This pattern raises questions about the very nature of the Italian economy, its historical development, and its relative success in the long run, demonstrating the need for a structural reassessment of these themes. On the basis of archival documents we maintain that this result was due to the strictness and complication of Italian procedures, as well as to their inability to select viable companies. These groups, often referred to as pyramids, raise very distinct questions about firm behavior; these questions that are especially relevant for developing countries where these groups are most prevalent.
We suggest that the pro-liquidation character of the insolvency law might have been one of the causes of the peculiarity of Italian industrial capitalism, even if the opposite direction of causality cannot be excluded. The very rich variety of subjects discussed and the widespread use of qualitative information to corroborate the analyses, offer a unique opportunity to look at the evolution of the Italian economy from many different views, and, cross-checking and referencing the different essays, to draw stronger and broader conclusions out of the information contained in each of them. Afterwards a process of decline of the public sector began: this speeded up in the late Nineties when total revenue from privatization put Italy at the top in the world with regard to income generated from de-nationalisation. This article offers a geographical and quantitative analysis of Belgian outward investment in urban transport, a sector in which Belgium played a leading role. The article is based on a large dataset, Imita. We then discuss a variety of questions, both theoretical and empirical, that remain to be unexplored.
The authors explain how the institutional setup has determined the Italian attitude toward technological innovation in the different historical phases, and suggest that the Italian national innovation system, from the unification until today, has been characterized by a peculiar shadowy or ghostly nature. Infine il saggio mostra come tale percezione non fosse in contrasto con i risultati ottenuti durante i vari episodi. Forms of Enterprise in 20th Century Italy Edited by Andrea Colli and Michelangelo Vasta in from Abstract: Taking an historical perspective, this unique book highlights the evolution of the many diverse forms of business enterprise, and discusses the contribution of these different types of firm to the economic growth of Italy. In search of an identity : struggling with the context -- pt. Il secondo dall'influenza dei successive episodi di instabilità bancaria nella più generale evoluzione della legge fallimentare.
Some factors are typically endogenous, as when personal managerial capabilities are concerned or political mistakes are assumed to be responsible for capital misallocation and losses in profi tability. By adopting an original methodology, that is the network analysis, and by using a large and comprehensive dataset Imita. We show that our model is compatible with various standard results on the effects of economic policy on the rate of growth. This should inter alia increase the ability of firms belonging to groups to access and utilize external knowledge. Moreover, Fiat managed to remain at the cutting edge of car manufacturing technology, enabling it to expand production, foreign sales and profits.
Thus it has not been so far possible to identify precisely - at a micro level - the real dimension of Italian public enterprise, and hence assess a phenomenon whose actual magnitude remains unknown to us. Analyzing 126 business competing in nine different global industries, five distinct archetypes are identified. However, there are some suggestions that the choice of self-employment is driven by economic necessity, particularly in the case of women. Insolvency procedures thus remained liquidation-prone, a factor that contributes to explain the peculiarity and the limits of Italian industrial capitalism. The improvements over the currently available series include the restriction of the electricity series to the production of the electric utilities, the extrapolation of the gas production series to 1861, and the calculation of production series for the water supply industry. At a certain point, in the 1960s, it was so successful in coping with modernization processes that even in Britain it seemed reasonable to argue about the advantages of adopting the Italian model of public enterprise Posner and Woolf 1967; Tomlinson 1999. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.