It is presented in this book in order to relate the problem of forecasting the response of the aquifer, in the form of groundwater levels and concentrations of any considered solute to planned operations e. Includes bibliographical references and index. Both natural and man-introduced components are considered. The importance of this factor depends on the time scale of the problem e. Problems are included and an introductory course in hydrology is the only prerequisite.
Among the latter are mentioned the impairment of water quality, increased energy costs by lowered water levels, and infringement of rights of other users in the same or adjacent basin i. First we solve the flow problem to obtain the velocity distribution and then use this information to solve the solute transport problem. It works exactly as advertised. Accordingly, in the present chapter we have set the stage by discussing the role of groundwater in water resource systems and by introducing the reader to what is involved in the management of groundwater resources. By doing so, water levels rise and outward from the recharge area gradients are established. As examples, we may mention improving living standards, increasing Gross National Product, improving life quality, redistribution of income, increasing net benefits, conservation of national resources, conservation and upgrading of environmental quality, etc. For example, where should spring water be placed? The second aspect stems from the nature of this input which fluctuates randomly from year to year.
Copyright Copyright © 1979 by Jacob Bear All rights reserved. The first four chapters consider subsurface fluid flow, while the remaining twelve chapters cover subsurface contamination and pollutant transport. The bottom of the pond and the soil column act as a filter. A review of hydraulics of groundwater flow to wells is presented in Chap. I believe that the subject matter I chose to include here should be sufficient for those who deal with the practical aspects of flow in aquifers. One possible objective is to facilitate access to a bank of models, computer programs or solutions for the various forecasting problems. Both the problem of water quantity e.
Following a discussion of boundary and initial conditions, the structure of the complete mathematical statement of any groundwater flow problem is presented. This 4-volume set contains several chapters, each of size 5000-30000 words, with perspectives, applications and extensive illustrations. This is the background for the way the subject matter is presented in this book. Temporarily, excess of outflow over inflow is provided by reduction in storage. Because of the interrelations between surface water and groundwater, and the recommended conjunctive use of both wherever called for by the local conditions, the two kinds of water should be incorporated within a single unified legal and administrative framework. Again, losses from storage are minimized recalling always that losses exist also from surface storage by evaporation and seepage. We may refer to this problem of forecasting the state of the ground-water system as the forecasting problem.
Problems are included and an introductory course in hydrology is the only prerequisite. The forecasting problem cannot be solved unless the considered groundwater system is well defined. Perhaps in part, this attitude stems from the fact that unlike water in streams and lakes, one cannot actually see groundwater in aquifers. In addition to uncertainty introduced by the stochastic nature of the input; uncertainty is also introduced in two ways: Uncertainty with respect to the model selected to represent the behavior of the groundwater system. When the state which the considered system has reached at any point in time becomes known, the optimal management policy is uniquely obtained from the specified strategy. On the other hand, for certain polluting elements carried with the water, the above processes of adsorption and ion exchange are an advantage as they remove them from the water. In doing so, the transmissivity is introduced as an aquifer parameter related to the hydraulic approach.
In many arid regions, aquifers in the low lands are replenished during a very short period once in several years, from flash floods originating in the mountains. Bear considers the majority of the classical aquifer models in some detail, so I think the book serves as a useful foundation for readers who might want to access literature on hydraulic aquifer models, for those who want to test the accuracy of numerical schemes with analytic solutions, and for those who want to probe deeper into the physics of groundwater flow. Another important factor is the annual climatic fluctuations of natural replenishment. A third group, which is a combination of these two, handles flows which are saturated in part of the domain and unsaturated in another part. Finally, I should like to express my thanks to those who helped me to complete this book.
A comprehensive approach is presented and the basic subject-Hydraulics of the flow and accumulation of water and containments in aquifers-is dealt with in the framework and for the purpose of managem This monograph covers hydraulics of groundwater from first principles to the complete mathematical statement of forecasting regional aquifer response to management activities. A large volume of storage is available in the void space of phreatic aquifers. This monograph covers hydraulics of groundwater from first principles to the complete mathematical statement of forecasting regional aquifer response to management activities. The reader is expected to know calculus, partial derivation, and the concepts of a vector, a gradient of a scalar, divergence of a vector, and what is a second rank tensor. The removal of such minerals is usually very expensive. I am on halfway through and I find this fascinating.
For example, we must know the water levels which will occur in an aquifer as a result of the implementation of a proposed management policy say, related to pumping in order to examine whether they violate water level constraints. Because of the storage capacity of an aquifer, annual withdrawal is not directly related to the natural replenishment in the same year. Many teachers use selected chapters in different books as their text or use no text at all, referring their students only to papers in professional journals. Consider, for example, the interrelations between a river or a lake and an adjacent aquifer, or a river passing through a region under which a phreatic aquifer exists. I have used it on bread and tomatoes and it did the job perfectly well. Following an introduction to the role and management of groundwater in water resource systems, the text examines groundwater balance and motion, mathematical statements of the groundwater forecasting problem, flow in the unsaturated zone, and groundwater quality problems.
This does not mean that groundwater cannot be affected by pollutants. It demonstrates how to conduct realistic assessments of contaminant plume structure and achieve contact between injected reagents and target compounds. Helpful appendixes and a set of problems corresponding to selected chapters conclude the text. Under natural conditions, a quasi-equilibrium situation is maintained with inflow equal to outflow. This observation is valid both for the physical model of the aquifer and for the management model which is based on it. The main feature here is the introduction of hydrodynamic dispersion. An introduction to numerical techniques is therefore presented.
It provides groundwater hydrologists, as well as engineers and planners who deal with the development and management of groundwater resources, with all the necessary tools to forecast the behavior of a regional aquifer system. For general planning purposes, a single long-term average optimal yield can be calculated. More wells are sunk when an increase in pumpage is required. Chapter 3 reviews the regional groundwater balance and its components. Storage reservoir Every water resource system requires storage, especially when replenishment is intermittent and is subject to random fluctuations. No attempt has been made to cover everything, as, obviously, such attempt would be hopeless to begin with.