On the other hand, failure by students to notice or record all observations, as well as overloading of working memory are main problems. The following, some taken from research and some from experience, provide justification for employing this fine resolution to analysis of pedagogi- 20 B. This level of representation also can be used both in respect of the Introduction 5 first, the phenomenological representational type, when dealing with bulk quantities of reactants and products in stoichiometric computations, and with a wide range of models of the second type of representation when describing physical changes e. Achieving changes in curriculum and teaching practices in this context remains a challenging task. Physics teachers may focus on the forms of multiple representations, but they might not be mindful of the essential or elementary features of a concept. What Is the Sub-microscopic Level? In this essay, we have attempted to build such a characterisation using conceptual profiles theory to propose a framework that can be used to enrich and support the thinking and action of chemistry teachers at all educational levels. Chemical symbol representation is used extensively in chemistry classrooms; however, due to its abstract nature, many students struggle with learning and effectively utilizing these symbolic representations which can lead to ongoing failure in subsequent chemistry learning.
The study presented photographs, with and without caption and accompanying text, to students. Understanding the nature of chemical thinking and action, as well as their application and impact on our world should be central goals of chemistry education at all educational levels. Is an atom of copper malleable? If the translation between different modes within the same level is problematic, it would be very challenging when students are required to smoothly mentally move about and link all the three — the macro, the sub-microscopic and symbolic levels — of chemical phenomena. Teaching of chemistry: Logical or psychological? That is bad enough, but the same diagram shows these water molecules below a horizontal line representing a liquid surface, suggesting that the water molecules are within a medium, rather than that they actually comprise the medium. In our view, the system of terminology should be both as brief as possible and avoid any possible ambiguities of meaning.
Further research of the value of different kinds of training to support teachers for the use of experimental work in chemistry teaching is needed. Durante a análise, observou-se um padrão de interação entre os estudantes do tipo Iniciação — Diversas Respostas — Síntese Final, que se diferem dos demais trabalhos da literatura em função da forma que os estudantes conduzem o debate. Educational Research, 42 1 , 43—57. Treagust, Curtin University of Technology, Australia Section A: The challenges faced in teaching and learning about the representational triplet Introduction Chapter1. To avoid the use of the traditional conceptual structure 2 Micro—Macro Thinking in Chemical Education 49 a Normal Chemistry Education reflex , an appropriate substantive substructure of micro—macro thinking Sub needs rethinking. The complexity of chemistry and its implications for teaching. Data of validity and practicality were analyzed with kappa moment.
The case is made that, whilst all school-age students should appreciate the nature of and relationship between the macro and submicro types of representation what we call the Group A Curriculum , only those students intended to study chemistry at an advanced level need to know about the quantitative aspects of symbolic representations what we call the Group B Curriculum. The development of chemistry teaching: a changing response to a changing demand. Andersson 1990 has brought our attention to a remarkable representation of liquid water showing only 12 water molecules in a beaker of water. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Similarly, rationalisation of chemical equilibrium, the states of matter or changes between them , diffusion, optical activity, or brittleness of ionic solids demand visual images with many particles to make sense. Nat Turner, Jeff Xavier, Youngkwan Cha, Sangchil Lee, Bradford Wheeler.
There is research evidence that this is, at least sometimes, not the case. European Journal of Science Education, 4, 409—420. Bent 1984 had a very sharp appreciation of the distinction, and of the interdependent relationship, between the macroscopic and sub-microscopic levels of operation of chemists. Little is known about teachers reasoning about such visual representational practices. International Journal of Science Education, 28 9 , 1041 — 1062. Reconciliation of the continuous nature of these phenomena with the discrete nature of the explanatory model requires some appreciation of the miniscule size of the particles in our sub-microscopic world.
This theory describes the dominant version of school chemistry as a curriculum with a typical philosophical substructure of educational positivism, a substantive substructure based on corpuscular theory and a pedagogical substructure focusing on the initiatory and preparatory training of future chemists. These fundamental mechanisms define ways of reasoning that students should master and chemistry instructors must give priority to in their instructional and assessment efforts. Based on the result of the research, it is found that the product of teaching material has characteristic, in which, is connecting the three levels of chemical representation on the colligative nature of the solution using various modes of representation in the form of video, animation, image and text. Van 2 Micro—Macro Thinking in Chemical Education 45 Berkel 2005 has analysed how during the process of development, revision and examination, this ratio has shifted into a much more heavy emphasis on Solid Foundation pure chemical content. Conclusion: Contributions of Multiple Representations to Biological Education David F. Ferreira, University of Minas Gerais, Brazil Chapter 13.
According to Van den Akker 1998, p. We can hypothesise that the latter problem may be exacerbated by the tendency of textbooks and probably teachers to talk about these two different resonance structures as though we are referring to two different molecules — when, in fact, we are talking about different electron distributions in just one molecule. International Journal of Science Education, 25 10 , 1227—1245. Treagust, Curtin University of Technology, Australia. To ensure this is the case, the implementation of representations should consider design principles for using multiple representations. Therefore, the further fulfilment of conditions two and three implies an 2 Micro—Macro Thinking in Chemical Education 51 iterative process which also involves a scaling-up that is possible only when in earlier transformations the attainment of the set of criteria is realised.
In this essay, findings from research in science and chemistry education are used to describe and discuss progression in students' structure-property reasoning through schooling. . The effects of presentation mode and colour in teaching visualization of rotation in diagrams of molecular structures. Micro-macro thinking in chemical education: why and how to escape Berry van Berkel, Albert Pilot, Astrid M. Após a utilização da Diversidade Representacional, um número significativo dos alunos demonstrou um Nível Interpretante Lógico acerca do conteúdo estudado, estruturando rigidamente o significado do fenômeno astronômico, construindo representações coerentes, consistentes e inter-relacionadas.
The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. Use the concepts of Curriculum Emphases and the framework of Normal Chemistry Education as instruments to articulate the new vision on the chemistry curriculum in terms of design criteria, i. Content retention has led to a curriculum paradox: while historical layers remain, the addition of content as a result of the survey means that the curriculum has become overloaded with content. The 12 chemistry teachers, who conducted lessons in these schools, were interviewed before the lessons; their teaching plans were also collected. Ihr Erwerb stellt nach vorliegenden Befunden zugleich eine besonders ausgeprägte Lernschwierigkeit dar. This philosophical substructure of the curriculum can be termed as educational positivism, i.
Kuhn, The essential tension pp. A partir dos dados coletados, pretendeu-se apresentar reflexões sobre os modelos dos estudantes para tais entidades, em especial, se os acadêmicos compreendiam os símbolos por ele próprio e se eram capazes de relacioná-los com os seus aspectos teóricos e empíricos. Pictures in Biology Education Wolff-Michael Roth, Lilian Pozzer-Ardenghi 4. Pressure, temperature, and the gas laws were learned similarly with both approaches. To sum up, Dominant School Chemistry taken as the mainstream chemistry curriculum is characterised by a substantive substructure in the domain of micro—macro From a basis of directly observable facts objective, independent from human beings , empirical generalisations and more complex theories can be induced, suitable for understanding the chemical world Phil Fig. Only one nucleophile particle and only one alkyl halide molecule? Data was collected using interview and observation, in which two students were purposively selected from two classes respectively. Taber municating chemistry to learners can be a source of learning difficulties.